Hepatitis Monthly Hepatitis Monthly Hepat Mon http://www.hepatmon.portal.tools 1735-143X 1735-3408 10.5812/hepatmon en jalali 2019 5 19 gregorian 2019 5 19 14 5
en 24829589 10.5812/hepatmon.17263 Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Seromarkers in Young Adults Vaccinated at Birth; Impact on the Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Infection in Iran Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Seromarkers in Young Adults Vaccinated at Birth; Impact on the Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Infection in Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

The study results indicated that the neonatal HBV immunization induced a long-term protection against HBV and was very efficacious in reducing chronic HBV infection rate in vaccinated young adults in Iran.

Results

Anti-HBs seropositivity rate was detected in 224 of 510 [95% CI: 39-47] young adults. Breakthrough infection (positive sera for Anti-HBc without chronic infection) was observed in 18 [95% CI: 2.5-3.5] subjects. There were neither HBs Ag positive results nor symptomatic hepatitis cases.

Patients and Methods

We recruited 510 young adults with a history of complete HB vaccination at birth. HBV seromarkers (HB surface antigen (HBs Ag), antibody against HBs Ag (Anti-HBs), and antibody against HB core antigen (Anti-HBc) were measured using ELISA method. Anti-HBs titers ≥ 10 IU/L were considered protective and titers more than 300 IU/L were indicative of a natural boosting. Positive results for Anti-HBc and HBs Ag were considered as breakthrough infection and possible vaccine failure, respectively. The history of acute symptomatic clinical hepatitis was also investigated.

Background

The epidemiological impact and the duration of protection provided by infant hepatitis B (HB) vaccination are unknown.

Objectives

This study was designed to determine the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection seromarkers in young adults who have been vaccinated against HBV as the first group of Iranian neonates during 1993 and 1994.

Conclusions

The study results indicated that the neonatal HBV immunization induced a long-term protection against HBV and was very efficacious in reducing chronic HBV infection rate in vaccinated young adults in Iran.

Results

Anti-HBs seropositivity rate was detected in 224 of 510 [95% CI: 39-47] young adults. Breakthrough infection (positive sera for Anti-HBc without chronic infection) was observed in 18 [95% CI: 2.5-3.5] subjects. There were neither HBs Ag positive results nor symptomatic hepatitis cases.

Patients and Methods

We recruited 510 young adults with a history of complete HB vaccination at birth. HBV seromarkers (HB surface antigen (HBs Ag), antibody against HBs Ag (Anti-HBs), and antibody against HB core antigen (Anti-HBc) were measured using ELISA method. Anti-HBs titers ≥ 10 IU/L were considered protective and titers more than 300 IU/L were indicative of a natural boosting. Positive results for Anti-HBc and HBs Ag were considered as breakthrough infection and possible vaccine failure, respectively. The history of acute symptomatic clinical hepatitis was also investigated.

Background

The epidemiological impact and the duration of protection provided by infant hepatitis B (HB) vaccination are unknown.

Objectives

This study was designed to determine the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection seromarkers in young adults who have been vaccinated against HBV as the first group of Iranian neonates during 1993 and 1994.

Hepatitis B;Iran;Hepatitis B Vaccine;HB Immunogenicity Hepatitis B;Iran;Hepatitis B Vaccine;HB Immunogenicity http://www.hepatmon.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=17263 Hiva Saffar Hiva Saffar Department of Pathology, Shariaty Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Pathology, Shariaty Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Abolghasem Ajami Abolghasem Ajami Department of Immunology, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran Department of Immunology, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran Mohammed Jafar Saffar Mohammed Jafar Saffar Pediatric Infectious Diseases Ward, Boali-Cina Hospital, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran; Pediatric Infectious Diseases Ward, Boali-Cina Hospital, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran. Tel: +98-1512233018, Fax: +98-1512234506 Pediatric Infectious Diseases Ward, Boali-Cina Hospital, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran; Pediatric Infectious Diseases Ward, Boali-Cina Hospital, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran. Tel: +98-1512233018, Fax: +98-1512234506 Jalil Shojaei Jalil Shojaei Provincial Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran Provincial Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran Maryam Sotudeh-Anvari Maryam Sotudeh-Anvari Department of Pathology, Shariaty Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Pathology, Shariaty Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Kiarash Shams-Esfandabad Kiarash Shams-Esfandabad Department of Pathology, Shariaty Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Pathology, Shariaty Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Ali Reza Khalilian Ali Reza Khalilian Department of Statistics, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran Department of Statistics, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran
en 24829590 10.5812/hepatmon.17537 Prognostic Values of Fluctuations in Serum Levels of Alanine Transaminase in Inactive Carrier State of HBV Infection Prognostic Values of Fluctuations in Serum Levels of Alanine Transaminase in Inactive Carrier State of HBV Infection research-article research-article Conclusions

Fluctuations in serum ALT levels may change the prognosis of a HBV inactive carrier state.

Objectives

This study aimed to determine the incidence rate and patterns of ALT fluctuations and prognostic values for the development of chronic HBV e antigen (HBeAg)-negative hepatitis B (CHB), HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance, and liver-related complications.

Patients and Methods

Treatment-naïve patients with a chronic HBV infection, HBeAg(-)/HBeAb(+), normal ALT levels, and HBV DNA < 2000 IU/mL, were followed-up every 6-12 months by assessing serum ALT levels. Serum HBV DNA was measured in cases of elevated ALT levels.

Results

A total of 399 patients were followed-up for 8.9 years; ALT > upper limit of normal (ULN, i.e. 40 IU/L) was detected in 103 (25.8%) patients, with an annual incidence rate of 2.9%. ALT elevation was associated with; male gender, age, and higher serum ALT levels at study entry. Among the cases of ALT elevations, 16 (15.5%) patients had ALT levels > 2 × ULN. There were 38 (36.9%) patients who had ALT levels that remained > ULN over six months, and 21 (20.4%) patients experienced at least two episodes of ALT elevations. In 15 (14.6%) patients, elevated ALT levels were associated with increased HBV replication (i.e. HBV DNA > 2 000 IU/mL) and these were considered as CHB. However, elevation of ALT levels, even in the absence of HBV replication, increased the risk for the development of CHB up to 8-fold in prospective follow-ups. HBsAg seroclearance, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma were detected in 43 (10.8%), 4 (1%), and 1 (0.25%) patients, respectively.

Background

Current guidelines introduce periodic monitoring of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) as the first-line modality in follow-up patients, with a hepatitis B virus (HBV) inactive carrier state.

Conclusions

Fluctuations in serum ALT levels may change the prognosis of a HBV inactive carrier state.

Objectives

This study aimed to determine the incidence rate and patterns of ALT fluctuations and prognostic values for the development of chronic HBV e antigen (HBeAg)-negative hepatitis B (CHB), HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance, and liver-related complications.

Patients and Methods

Treatment-naïve patients with a chronic HBV infection, HBeAg(-)/HBeAb(+), normal ALT levels, and HBV DNA < 2000 IU/mL, were followed-up every 6-12 months by assessing serum ALT levels. Serum HBV DNA was measured in cases of elevated ALT levels.

Results

A total of 399 patients were followed-up for 8.9 years; ALT > upper limit of normal (ULN, i.e. 40 IU/L) was detected in 103 (25.8%) patients, with an annual incidence rate of 2.9%. ALT elevation was associated with; male gender, age, and higher serum ALT levels at study entry. Among the cases of ALT elevations, 16 (15.5%) patients had ALT levels > 2 × ULN. There were 38 (36.9%) patients who had ALT levels that remained > ULN over six months, and 21 (20.4%) patients experienced at least two episodes of ALT elevations. In 15 (14.6%) patients, elevated ALT levels were associated with increased HBV replication (i.e. HBV DNA > 2 000 IU/mL) and these were considered as CHB. However, elevation of ALT levels, even in the absence of HBV replication, increased the risk for the development of CHB up to 8-fold in prospective follow-ups. HBsAg seroclearance, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma were detected in 43 (10.8%), 4 (1%), and 1 (0.25%) patients, respectively.

Background

Current guidelines introduce periodic monitoring of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) as the first-line modality in follow-up patients, with a hepatitis B virus (HBV) inactive carrier state.

Hepatitis B Virus;Alanine Transaminase;Hepatitis B e Antigen;Hepatitis B, Chronic Hepatitis B Virus;Alanine Transaminase;Hepatitis B e Antigen;Hepatitis B, Chronic http://www.hepatmon.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=17537 Hossein Farzi Hossein Farzi Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nasser Ebrahimi Daryani Nasser Ebrahimi Daryani Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Leila Mehrnoush Leila Mehrnoush Middle East Liver Diseases Center (MELD), Tehran, IR Iran Middle East Liver Diseases Center (MELD), Tehran, IR Iran Shima Salimi Shima Salimi Middle East Liver Diseases Center (MELD), Tehran, IR Iran Middle East Liver Diseases Center (MELD), Tehran, IR Iran Seyed Moayed Alavian Seyed Moayed Alavian Middle East Liver Diseases Center (MELD), Tehran, IR Iran; Middle East Liver Diseases Center (MELD), Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188067114, Fax: +98-2188067114 Middle East Liver Diseases Center (MELD), Tehran, IR Iran; Middle East Liver Diseases Center (MELD), Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188067114, Fax: +98-2188067114
en 24829588 10.5812/hepatmon.15275 Potential Mutations Associated With Occult Hepatitis B Virus Status Potential Mutations Associated With Occult Hepatitis B Virus Status review-article review-article Results

Variants within the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of the HBsAg, deletions in the pre-S1region, codon stop in the S open reading frames (ORF), sporadic non common mutations, some mutations affecting the posttranslational production of HBV proteins in the S ORF like deletion mutations, mutations in start codon and nucleotide changes in the X ORF, deletion and point mutations in P ORF and sometimes, nucleotide substitution in the C ORF are among the assumed mutations detected to have a role in OHBS appearance.

Conclusions

Studies mostly lacked a control group and the whole-length HBV sequencing was scant with conflicting results, suggesting that OHBS is often a result of multiple mechanisms. Additional studies on full-length HBV genomes from occult and non-occult HBV cases may shed more light on the interplay between different mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of OHBS.

Context

Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) status (OHBS) is simply defined as the presence of HBV DNA in the liver (with or without detectable HBV DNA in the serum), in the absence of serum HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Importance of OHBS is mostly clinical, related to its possible role in spreading through blood transfusion and liver transplantation; causing classic forms of HBV. Mechanisms underlying this entity are poorly defined. Several possibilities have been suggested, with major classification into two groups: defective host immune response and viral replication activity through mutations of HBV DNA sequence. Mutations are extensively investigated in all four overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) of HBV genome, to define their possible role in the pathogenesis of OHBS. Some of these mutations like S-escape mutants could not be detected by the routine available assays, making them difficult to diagnosis. Therefore, trying to detect this covert condition could be more helpful for defining better preventive and therapeutic strategies.

Evidence Acquisition

In the present study we provided an in-depth review of the most important new data available on different mutations in HBV genome of patients with OHBS, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of OHBS. The data were collected through reviewing the full-text articles, identified by the PubMed search, using the following keywords and their different combinations: occult hepatitis B, HBV genome, "a" determinant, HBV open reading frames, S mutations, X mutations, P mutations and C mutations.

Results

Variants within the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of the HBsAg, deletions in the pre-S1region, codon stop in the S open reading frames (ORF), sporadic non common mutations, some mutations affecting the posttranslational production of HBV proteins in the S ORF like deletion mutations, mutations in start codon and nucleotide changes in the X ORF, deletion and point mutations in P ORF and sometimes, nucleotide substitution in the C ORF are among the assumed mutations detected to have a role in OHBS appearance.

Conclusions

Studies mostly lacked a control group and the whole-length HBV sequencing was scant with conflicting results, suggesting that OHBS is often a result of multiple mechanisms. Additional studies on full-length HBV genomes from occult and non-occult HBV cases may shed more light on the interplay between different mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of OHBS.

Context

Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) status (OHBS) is simply defined as the presence of HBV DNA in the liver (with or without detectable HBV DNA in the serum), in the absence of serum HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Importance of OHBS is mostly clinical, related to its possible role in spreading through blood transfusion and liver transplantation; causing classic forms of HBV. Mechanisms underlying this entity are poorly defined. Several possibilities have been suggested, with major classification into two groups: defective host immune response and viral replication activity through mutations of HBV DNA sequence. Mutations are extensively investigated in all four overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) of HBV genome, to define their possible role in the pathogenesis of OHBS. Some of these mutations like S-escape mutants could not be detected by the routine available assays, making them difficult to diagnosis. Therefore, trying to detect this covert condition could be more helpful for defining better preventive and therapeutic strategies.

Evidence Acquisition

In the present study we provided an in-depth review of the most important new data available on different mutations in HBV genome of patients with OHBS, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of OHBS. The data were collected through reviewing the full-text articles, identified by the PubMed search, using the following keywords and their different combinations: occult hepatitis B, HBV genome, "a" determinant, HBV open reading frames, S mutations, X mutations, P mutations and C mutations.

Hepatitis B;Mutation;Virus Diseases Hepatitis B;Mutation;Virus Diseases http://www.hepatmon.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=15275 Sima Besharat Sima Besharat Liver and Pancreatobiliary Diseases Research Center, Digestive Disease Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Golestan Research Center of Gastroentrology and Hepatology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran Liver and Pancreatobiliary Diseases Research Center, Digestive Disease Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Golestan Research Center of Gastroentrology and Hepatology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran Aezam Katoonizadeh Aezam Katoonizadeh Liver and Pancreatobiliary Diseases Research Center, Digestive Disease Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Liver and Pancreatobiliary Diseases Research Center, Digestive Disease Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Abdolvahab Moradi Abdolvahab Moradi Golestan Research Center of Gastroentrology and Hepatology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran; Golestan Research Center of Gastroentrology and Hepatology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-1712340835; +98-9111772107, Fax: +98-1712369210 Golestan Research Center of Gastroentrology and Hepatology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran; Golestan Research Center of Gastroentrology and Hepatology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-1712340835; +98-9111772107, Fax: +98-1712369210
en 24829591 10.5812/hepatmon.17641 Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Childhood: Endocrine-Metabolic “Mal-Programming” Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Childhood: Endocrine-Metabolic “Mal-Programming” review-article review-article Conclusions

Pediatric NAFLD/NASH is emerging problem. Longitudinal follow-up studies, unfortunately still insufficient, are needed to better understand the natural history and outcome of NAFLD in children. This review focuses on the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, environmental, genetic and metabolic factors of disease. The review also highlights the importance of studying the underlying mechanisms of pediatric NAFLD and the need for complete and personalized approach in the management of NAFLD/NASH.

Results

NAFLD/NASH is probably promoted by “multiple parallel hits”: environmental and genetic factors, systemic immunological disorders (oxidative stress, persistent-low grade of inflammation) as well as obesity and metabolic alterations (insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome). However its exact cause still underdiagnosed and unknown.

Context

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the major chronic liver disease in the pediatric population. NAFLD includes a broad spectrum of abnormalities (inflammation, fibrosis and cirrhosis), ranging from accumulation of fat (also known as steatosis) towards non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The development of NAFLD in children is significantly increased.

Evidence Acquisition

A literature search of electronic databases was undertaken for the major studies published from 1998 to today. The databases searched were: PubMed, EMBASE, Orphanet, Midline and Cochrane Library. We used the key words: "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, children, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fatty liver".

Conclusions

Pediatric NAFLD/NASH is emerging problem. Longitudinal follow-up studies, unfortunately still insufficient, are needed to better understand the natural history and outcome of NAFLD in children. This review focuses on the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, environmental, genetic and metabolic factors of disease. The review also highlights the importance of studying the underlying mechanisms of pediatric NAFLD and the need for complete and personalized approach in the management of NAFLD/NASH.

Results

NAFLD/NASH is probably promoted by “multiple parallel hits”: environmental and genetic factors, systemic immunological disorders (oxidative stress, persistent-low grade of inflammation) as well as obesity and metabolic alterations (insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome). However its exact cause still underdiagnosed and unknown.

Context

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the major chronic liver disease in the pediatric population. NAFLD includes a broad spectrum of abnormalities (inflammation, fibrosis and cirrhosis), ranging from accumulation of fat (also known as steatosis) towards non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The development of NAFLD in children is significantly increased.

Evidence Acquisition

A literature search of electronic databases was undertaken for the major studies published from 1998 to today. The databases searched were: PubMed, EMBASE, Orphanet, Midline and Cochrane Library. We used the key words: "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, children, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fatty liver".

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease;Mallory Bodies;Oxidative Stress Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease;Mallory Bodies;Oxidative Stress http://www.hepatmon.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=17641 Sara Manti Sara Manti Department of Pediatric Sciences, Genetics and Pediatric Immunology Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Department of Pediatric Sciences, Genetics and Pediatric Immunology Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Claudio Romano Claudio Romano Department of Pediatric Sciences, Genetics and Pediatric Immunology Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Department of Pediatric Sciences, Genetics and Pediatric Immunology Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Valeria Chirico Valeria Chirico Department of Pediatric Sciences, Genetics and Pediatric Immunology Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Department of Pediatric Sciences, Genetics and Pediatric Immunology Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Martina Filippelli Martina Filippelli Department of Pediatric Sciences, Genetics and Pediatric Immunology Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Department of Pediatric Sciences, Genetics and Pediatric Immunology Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Caterina Cuppari Caterina Cuppari Department of Pediatric Sciences, Genetics and Pediatric Immunology Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Department of Pediatric Sciences, Genetics and Pediatric Immunology Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Italia Loddo Italia Loddo Department of Pediatric Sciences, Genetics and Pediatric Immunology Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Department of Pediatric Sciences, Genetics and Pediatric Immunology Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Carmelo Salpietro Carmelo Salpietro Department of Pediatric Sciences, Genetics and Pediatric Immunology Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Department of Pediatric Sciences, Genetics and Pediatric Immunology Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Teresa Arrigo Teresa Arrigo Department of Pediatric Sciences, Genetics and Pediatric Immunology Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; Department of Pediatric Science, Genetics and Pediatric Immunology Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy. Tel +39-902213130, Fax: +39-902213788 Department of Pediatric Sciences, Genetics and Pediatric Immunology Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; Department of Pediatric Science, Genetics and Pediatric Immunology Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy. Tel +39-902213130, Fax: +39-902213788
en 24976832 10.5812/hepatmon.13514 Biological Functions of Exosomes in the Liver in Health and Disease Biological Functions of Exosomes in the Liver in Health and Disease editorial editorial Exosomes;Liver Disease;Homeostasis;Drug Metabolism Exosomes;Liver Disease;Homeostasis;Drug Metabolism http://www.hepatmon.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=13514 Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi Applied Microbiology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Corresponding Author: Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi, Applied Microbiology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2188211523, E-mail: Applied Microbiology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Corresponding Author: Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi, Applied Microbiology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2188211523, E-mail: Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini Applied Microbiology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Applied Microbiology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 24910702 10.5812/hepatmon.11608 Acetyl-L-Carnitine Supplementation During HCV Therapy With Pegylated Interferon-α 2b Plus Ribavirin: Effect on Work Performance; A Randomized Clinical Trial Acetyl-L-Carnitine Supplementation During HCV Therapy With Pegylated Interferon-α 2b Plus Ribavirin: Effect on Work Performance; A Randomized Clinical Trial research-article research-article Conclusions

Office workers with chronic hepatitis C, treated with Pegylated-Interferon-α2b plus Ribavirin, had work performance loss. In subjects treated with Acetyl-L-Carnitine supplementation we observed increased daily activity and reduced presenteeism and fatigue. Acetyl-L-Carnitinegroup had a smaller reduction of productivity comparing to placebo group.

Results

Significant difference were observed in physical fatigue, mental fatigue and severity of fatigue, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and viremia after 12 months treatment. In Group B we observed a significant decrease of presenteeism and daily activity impairment after 6 months, 12 months and at follow up. A significant increase of work productivity was observed after 12 months and at follow up.

Background

The health status of employees with chronic hepatitis C has major implications for organizations and labour market.

Objectives

To assess the effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine administration on work productivity, daily activity, and fatigue in subjects with chronic hepatitis C treated with Pegylated-Interferon-α2b and Ribavirin.

Patients and Methods

In this prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial, 30 subjects (Group A) with chronic hepatitis, received Pegylated-Interferon-α2b (1.5 mg/kg per week) plus Ribavirin and placebo, while 32 subjects (Group B) received the same dosage of Pegylated-Interferon-α2b plus Ribavirin plus 2g Acetyl-L-Carnitine twice per day, for 12 months. Work productivity loss, impairment in daily activities, presenteeism, absenteeism, have been assessed using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. We also evaluated severity of fatigue, mental fatigue and physical fatigue.

Conclusions

Office workers with chronic hepatitis C, treated with Pegylated-Interferon-α2b plus Ribavirin, had work performance loss. In subjects treated with Acetyl-L-Carnitine supplementation we observed increased daily activity and reduced presenteeism and fatigue. Acetyl-L-Carnitinegroup had a smaller reduction of productivity comparing to placebo group.

Results

Significant difference were observed in physical fatigue, mental fatigue and severity of fatigue, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and viremia after 12 months treatment. In Group B we observed a significant decrease of presenteeism and daily activity impairment after 6 months, 12 months and at follow up. A significant increase of work productivity was observed after 12 months and at follow up.

Background

The health status of employees with chronic hepatitis C has major implications for organizations and labour market.

Objectives

To assess the effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine administration on work productivity, daily activity, and fatigue in subjects with chronic hepatitis C treated with Pegylated-Interferon-α2b and Ribavirin.

Patients and Methods

In this prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial, 30 subjects (Group A) with chronic hepatitis, received Pegylated-Interferon-α2b (1.5 mg/kg per week) plus Ribavirin and placebo, while 32 subjects (Group B) received the same dosage of Pegylated-Interferon-α2b plus Ribavirin plus 2g Acetyl-L-Carnitine twice per day, for 12 months. Work productivity loss, impairment in daily activities, presenteeism, absenteeism, have been assessed using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. We also evaluated severity of fatigue, mental fatigue and physical fatigue.

Acetyl Lcarnitine;Interferon;Ribavirin;Hepatitis C;Fatigue;Quality of Life Acetyl Lcarnitine;Interferon;Ribavirin;Hepatitis C;Fatigue;Quality of Life http://www.hepatmon.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=11608 Giulia Malaguarnera Giulia Malaguarnera Department of Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, Section of Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Catania, Catania, Italy Department of Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, Section of Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Catania, Catania, Italy Manuela Pennisi Manuela Pennisi Department of Neurosciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy Department of Neurosciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy Caterina Gagliano Caterina Gagliano The Great Senescence Research Center, University of Catania, Catania, Italy The Great Senescence Research Center, University of Catania, Catania, Italy Marco Vacante Marco Vacante The Great Senescence Research Center, University of Catania, Catania, Italy The Great Senescence Research Center, University of Catania, Catania, Italy Michele Malaguarnera Michele Malaguarnera Department of Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, Section of Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; The Great Senescence Research Center, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; The Great Senescence Research Center, University of Catania, Catania, Italy. Tel: +39-957262008, Fax: +39-957262011 Department of Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, Section of Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; The Great Senescence Research Center, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; The Great Senescence Research Center, University of Catania, Catania, Italy. Tel: +39-957262008, Fax: +39-957262011 Salvatore Salomone Salvatore Salomone Department of Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, Section of Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Catania, Catania, Italy Department of Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, Section of Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Catania, Catania, Italy Filippo Drago Filippo Drago Department of Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, Section of Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Catania, Catania, Italy Department of Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, Section of Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Catania, Catania, Italy Gaetano Bertino Gaetano Bertino Department of Internal Medicine and Systemic Diseases, University of Catania, Catania, Italy Department of Internal Medicine and Systemic Diseases, University of Catania, Catania, Italy Filippo Caraci Filippo Caraci Department of Educational Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; Institute for Research on Mental Retardation and Brain Aging, Troina, Italy Department of Educational Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; Institute for Research on Mental Retardation and Brain Aging, Troina, Italy Giuseppe Nunnari Giuseppe Nunnari Department of Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Catania, Catania, Italy Department of Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Catania, Catania, Italy Mariano Malaguarnera Mariano Malaguarnera The Great Senescence Research Center, University of Catania, Catania, Italy The Great Senescence Research Center, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
en 24910706 10.5812/hepatmon.18794 Long Noncoding RNAs in Interaction With RNA Binding Proteins in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Long Noncoding RNAs in Interaction With RNA Binding Proteins in Hepatocellular Carcinoma research-article research-article Conclusions

This information provides an explanation for the previously valuable literature on the functions of lncRNAs and suggest for the novel therapeutic targeting.

Results

The lncRNAs HOTTIP, H19, HOTAIR, MALAT1, antisense Igf2r (AIR), HOXA13, GTL2 (also called MEG3) and uc002mb have been reported in association with HCC. Besides, this study predicted that eIF4AIII, PTB and FUS were the most involved RBPs in interaction with HCC-related lncRNAs.

Materials and Methods

The identified lncRNAs were analyzed by bioinformatics tools, starBase and lncRNA db, to anticipate the RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that tend to interact to HCC-related lncRNAs. The most important predicted RBPs in interaction with well-known lncRNAs in HCC were briefly discussed.

Background

Gene expression microarrays' analyses provide a description of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) with lack of coding protein function that is often important in human cancer.

Objectives

A number of lncRNAs that have been well characterized in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been scheduled in this study to discuss for protein–lncRNA interaction.

Conclusions

This information provides an explanation for the previously valuable literature on the functions of lncRNAs and suggest for the novel therapeutic targeting.

Results

The lncRNAs HOTTIP, H19, HOTAIR, MALAT1, antisense Igf2r (AIR), HOXA13, GTL2 (also called MEG3) and uc002mb have been reported in association with HCC. Besides, this study predicted that eIF4AIII, PTB and FUS were the most involved RBPs in interaction with HCC-related lncRNAs.

Materials and Methods

The identified lncRNAs were analyzed by bioinformatics tools, starBase and lncRNA db, to anticipate the RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that tend to interact to HCC-related lncRNAs. The most important predicted RBPs in interaction with well-known lncRNAs in HCC were briefly discussed.

Background

Gene expression microarrays' analyses provide a description of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) with lack of coding protein function that is often important in human cancer.

Objectives

A number of lncRNAs that have been well characterized in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been scheduled in this study to discuss for protein–lncRNA interaction.

Carcinoma, Hepatocellular;Long Noncoding RNA;RNA-Binding Proteins Carcinoma, Hepatocellular;Long Noncoding RNA;RNA-Binding Proteins http://www.hepatmon.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=18794 Ashraf Mohamadkhani Ashraf Mohamadkhani Liver and Pancreatobiliary Disease Research Center, Digestive Disease Research institute, Shartati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Liver and Pancreatobiliary Disease Research Center, Digestive Disease Research institute, Shartati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, North Kargar Ave. Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2182415227, Fax: +98-2182415400 Liver and Pancreatobiliary Disease Research Center, Digestive Disease Research institute, Shartati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Liver and Pancreatobiliary Disease Research Center, Digestive Disease Research institute, Shartati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, North Kargar Ave. Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2182415227, Fax: +98-2182415400
en 24910703 10.5812/hepatmon.14559 Distribution of HCV Genotypes in the Populations of Inmates in Polish Prison Potulice and Patients Hospitalised in Bydgoszcz Distribution of HCV Genotypes in the Populations of Inmates in Polish Prison Potulice and Patients Hospitalised in Bydgoszcz brief-report brief-report Conclusions

The current study shows that the predominant HCV genotype among inmates from prison in Potulice is genotype 3.

Results

The most frequent HCV genotype among inmates was genotype 3, which was detected in169 of 281 patients (60.1%). Most frequent genotype among hospitalized was genotype 1, which was found in 1127 cases (79.6%). Comparing the results of prisoners with a group of patients with HIV/HCV co-infection gave similar results. In both groups most frequent was genotype 3 (respectively 60.1 and 45.5%). However, most prisoners in this study (96%) were HIV-negative.

Objectives

The aim of the study was to determine and compare the genotypes distribution among prisoners and patients of hospital.

Patients and Methods

HCV genotypes among prisoners (281 inmates) and patients of hospital (1415 patients) were determined in years 2002-2012. HCV genotypes were determined in 2002-2005 with INNO-LiPA HCV II test (Innogenetics, Gent, Belgium) and since 2006 with LINEAR ARRAY assay (Roche, Mannheim, Germany), after isolation and amplification of the material with COBAS AMPLICOR v 2.0 (Roche, Mannheim, Germany).

Background

According to many studies, one of the social groups with high rate of HCV infections are prisoners.

Conclusions

The current study shows that the predominant HCV genotype among inmates from prison in Potulice is genotype 3.

Results

The most frequent HCV genotype among inmates was genotype 3, which was detected in169 of 281 patients (60.1%). Most frequent genotype among hospitalized was genotype 1, which was found in 1127 cases (79.6%). Comparing the results of prisoners with a group of patients with HIV/HCV co-infection gave similar results. In both groups most frequent was genotype 3 (respectively 60.1 and 45.5%). However, most prisoners in this study (96%) were HIV-negative.

Objectives

The aim of the study was to determine and compare the genotypes distribution among prisoners and patients of hospital.

Patients and Methods

HCV genotypes among prisoners (281 inmates) and patients of hospital (1415 patients) were determined in years 2002-2012. HCV genotypes were determined in 2002-2005 with INNO-LiPA HCV II test (Innogenetics, Gent, Belgium) and since 2006 with LINEAR ARRAY assay (Roche, Mannheim, Germany), after isolation and amplification of the material with COBAS AMPLICOR v 2.0 (Roche, Mannheim, Germany).

Background

According to many studies, one of the social groups with high rate of HCV infections are prisoners.

Hepatitis C;HCV;Prison Hepatitis C;HCV;Prison http://www.hepatmon.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=14559 Malgorzata Tyczyno Malgorzata Tyczyno Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland; Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland. Tel: +48-523255678, Fax: +48-523255673 Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland; Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland. Tel: +48-523255678, Fax: +48-523255673 Waldemar Halota Waldemar Halota Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland Wojciech Nowak Wojciech Nowak Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland Małgorzata Pawlowska Małgorzata Pawlowska Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland
en 24910705 10.5812/hepatmon.17389 Hepatitis B Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Adult Population of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province in 2013 Hepatitis B Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Adult Population of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province in 2013 research-article research-article Conclusions

Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province could be categorized as a low endemic region for hepatitis B infection, with a seroprevalence similar to that in other provinces of western Iran. Vaccination seems to influence its decrease, especially in adolescents and youth. More surveillance and attention to risk factors are suggested to identify high-risk groups and to implement vaccination.

Results

The mean age of participants was 38.4 ± 16.3. The seroprevalence rate of hepatitis B was found to be 1.3% (95% CI, 0.95%-1.81%). Prevalence of HBeAg among HBsAg positive participants was 2.5% (only 1 of 40). Seroprevalence was higher in male group (2.5 times higher than women), age group of over 55 years, farmers, and non-public occupations. Positive seroprevalence was associated with a history of renal disease, familial transmission, transfusion, surgery in hospital, circumcision, contact with hepatitis B infected individuals, imprisonment, intravenous (IV) drug abuse, and smoking (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, the highest odds ratio (OR) was obtained for history of renal disease (OR = 7.64: 3.01-18.4), followed by imprisonment (OR = 5.4: 1.86 -15.7) and IV drug abuse (OR = 5.68: 1.3-24.7).

Background

Hepatitis B virus is one of the important viral causes of liver inflammation with high worldwide prevalence and important hepatic and extra hepatic complications.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Iran.

Patients and Methods

For this descriptive, analytical, population-based study, 3000 participants older than 15 years were enrolled according to the clustering method. After obtaining written informed consent and taking required blood samples, we gathered data on demographic status and probable transmission routes of disease using questionnaire between 2012 and 2013. The data was analyzed using SPSS software (descriptive parameters and chi-square). P value below 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Conclusions

Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province could be categorized as a low endemic region for hepatitis B infection, with a seroprevalence similar to that in other provinces of western Iran. Vaccination seems to influence its decrease, especially in adolescents and youth. More surveillance and attention to risk factors are suggested to identify high-risk groups and to implement vaccination.

Results

The mean age of participants was 38.4 ± 16.3. The seroprevalence rate of hepatitis B was found to be 1.3% (95% CI, 0.95%-1.81%). Prevalence of HBeAg among HBsAg positive participants was 2.5% (only 1 of 40). Seroprevalence was higher in male group (2.5 times higher than women), age group of over 55 years, farmers, and non-public occupations. Positive seroprevalence was associated with a history of renal disease, familial transmission, transfusion, surgery in hospital, circumcision, contact with hepatitis B infected individuals, imprisonment, intravenous (IV) drug abuse, and smoking (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, the highest odds ratio (OR) was obtained for history of renal disease (OR = 7.64: 3.01-18.4), followed by imprisonment (OR = 5.4: 1.86 -15.7) and IV drug abuse (OR = 5.68: 1.3-24.7).

Background

Hepatitis B virus is one of the important viral causes of liver inflammation with high worldwide prevalence and important hepatic and extra hepatic complications.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Iran.

Patients and Methods

For this descriptive, analytical, population-based study, 3000 participants older than 15 years were enrolled according to the clustering method. After obtaining written informed consent and taking required blood samples, we gathered data on demographic status and probable transmission routes of disease using questionnaire between 2012 and 2013. The data was analyzed using SPSS software (descriptive parameters and chi-square). P value below 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Hepatitis B;Hepatitis B Surface Antigens;Seroepidemiologic Studies;Risk Factors Hepatitis B;Hepatitis B Surface Antigens;Seroepidemiologic Studies;Risk Factors http://www.hepatmon.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=17389 Masoumeh Moezzi Masoumeh Moezzi Department of Community Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran Department of Community Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran Reza Imani Reza Imani Department of Infectious Diseases, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran; Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Rahmatiyeh, Shahrekord, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3813338891, Fax: +98-3813338891 Department of Infectious Diseases, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran; Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Rahmatiyeh, Shahrekord, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3813338891, Fax: +98-3813338891 Nasser Khosravi Nasser Khosravi Department of Infectious Diseases, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran Department of Infectious Diseases, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran Behrouz Pourheidar Behrouz Pourheidar Central Disease Control Unit, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran Central Disease Control Unit, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran Forouzan Ganji Forouzan Ganji Department of Community Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran Department of Community Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran Ali Karimi Ali Karimi Department of Microbiology, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran Department of Microbiology, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran
en 24910704 10.5812/hepatmon.15447 Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor Adjuvant Role on the Immunological Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine in Patients With Cirrhosis: A Double Blind Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor Adjuvant Role on the Immunological Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine in Patients With Cirrhosis: A Double Blind Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial research-article research-article Conclusions

The present study showed that G-CSF is not superior to placebo in production of protective antibody titers after HBV vaccination but could result in a more rapid antibody response, compared to the placebo.

Results

There was no statistically significant difference between anti-HBV antibody titers in patients receiving double dose HBV vaccination plus G-CSF and patients receiving double dose HBV vaccination plus placebo, after first, second or third vaccination rounds (P > 0.05). Although the adjuvant G-CSF injection did not cause significant increased antibody titers in our patients compared to the placebo group, the increase in antibody titers following vaccination, happened faster in this group, compared to the placebo group.

Patients and Methods

From 56 patients with cirrhosis, 28 patients were allocated to receive double dose HBV vaccine (40 μgr) plus G-CSF and 28 patients were allocated to receive double dose HBV vaccine (40 μgr) plus placebo. Injections were performed on weeks 0, 4 and 8 and the blood samples were obtained one month after each vaccination session.

Background

Patients with liver cirrhosis have usually poor antibody response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination.

Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the effect of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) on increasing antibody titers, after HBV vaccination, in patients with liver cirrhosis waiting for transplantation.

Conclusions

The present study showed that G-CSF is not superior to placebo in production of protective antibody titers after HBV vaccination but could result in a more rapid antibody response, compared to the placebo.

Results

There was no statistically significant difference between anti-HBV antibody titers in patients receiving double dose HBV vaccination plus G-CSF and patients receiving double dose HBV vaccination plus placebo, after first, second or third vaccination rounds (P > 0.05). Although the adjuvant G-CSF injection did not cause significant increased antibody titers in our patients compared to the placebo group, the increase in antibody titers following vaccination, happened faster in this group, compared to the placebo group.

Patients and Methods

From 56 patients with cirrhosis, 28 patients were allocated to receive double dose HBV vaccine (40 μgr) plus G-CSF and 28 patients were allocated to receive double dose HBV vaccine (40 μgr) plus placebo. Injections were performed on weeks 0, 4 and 8 and the blood samples were obtained one month after each vaccination session.

Background

Patients with liver cirrhosis have usually poor antibody response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination.

Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the effect of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) on increasing antibody titers, after HBV vaccination, in patients with liver cirrhosis waiting for transplantation.

Hepatitis B;Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor;HBV Vaccine;Liver Cirrhosis;Clinical Trial Hepatitis B;Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor;HBV Vaccine;Liver Cirrhosis;Clinical Trial http://www.hepatmon.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=15447 Kamran Bagheri Lankarani Kamran Bagheri Lankarani Health Policy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Health Policy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Mozaffar Talebzadeh Mozaffar Talebzadeh Department of Internal Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Internal Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Ahad Eshraghian Ahad Eshraghian Department of Internal Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Internal Medicine, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 71345-1744, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7116125600 Department of Internal Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Internal Medicine, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 71345-1744, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7116125600 Seyed Ali Malek-Hosseini Seyed Ali Malek-Hosseini Organ Transplant Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Organ Transplant Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
en 24976834 10.5812/hepatmon.18556 Serum Thrombopoietin Levels and Its Relationship With Thrombocytopenia in Patients With Cirrhosis Serum Thrombopoietin Levels and Its Relationship With Thrombocytopenia in Patients With Cirrhosis research-article research-article Conclusions

Our results suggest that liver cirrhosis does not cause impaired thrombopoietin production even in the late stage of disease. Thrombopoietin has no contribution for the occurrence of thrombocytopenia in cirrhosis; splenic sequestration seems to be the main factor.

Results

Platelet counts were lower in patients with cirrhosis (97000 ± 8000/mm3) than in healthy subjects (240000 ± 51000/mm3, P < 0.001). Significant difference was determined for platelet counts among child A, B and C stages (Child A vs. Child B P < 0.05 Child A vs. Child C P < 0.001–Child B vs. Child C P < 0.05). Serum TPO concentration was higher (69 ± 12 pg/mL) in cirrhotic group than healthy controls (49 ± 9 pg/ml) (P < 0.05). No significant difference in TPO levels were found among the Child A, B and C stages (64 ± 11 pg/mL, 75 ± 13 pg/mL and 68 ± 10 pg/mL, respectively). Spleen size and SVI was significantly higher in the cirrhotic patients than healthy controls (148 ± 14 mm vs. 98 ± 11 mm, P < 0.001-9167 ± 287 cm2 vs. 4118 ± 123 cm2). Significant difference was determined for spleen size and spleen index among child A, B and C stages (Child A vs. Child B P < 0.05 Child A vs. Child C P < 0.001–Child B vs. Child C P < 0.05). TPO levels were significantly different between cirrhotic patients with platelet levels below 50.000/mm3 (n = 16, plt-count: 41000 ± 8300/mm3, TPO levels: 73 ± 7 pg/mL) and above 50.000/mm3 (n = 76, plt-count: 105000 ± 9500/mm3, TPO levels: 65 ± 10 pg/mL) (P < 0.01). In correlation analysis, there was a strong negative correlation between platelet count-spleen size (P < 0.001, r = -0.74) and platelet count–serum TPO levels (P < 0.001, r = -0.71).

Patients and Methods

Ninety–two cirrhotic patients and 45 healthy controls without history or findings of pathologies that can effect thrombopoietin levels were enrolled by simple random sampling to patient and control groups of this case control study performed at Eskisehir-Turkey. Thrombopoietin was measured in serum samples with a solid phase enzyme-linked immune absorbent assay. Additionally, spleen size and volume index were determined.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate serum thrombopoietin levels and its relationship with thrombocytopenia at patients with cirrhosis.

Background

Patients with cirrhosis usually have thrombocytopenia in discrete levels. The mechanism of thrombocytopenia is thought as splenic sequestration and destruction of platelets, impaired bone marrow generation and diminished hepatic thrombopoietin synthesis.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that liver cirrhosis does not cause impaired thrombopoietin production even in the late stage of disease. Thrombopoietin has no contribution for the occurrence of thrombocytopenia in cirrhosis; splenic sequestration seems to be the main factor.

Results

Platelet counts were lower in patients with cirrhosis (97000 ± 8000/mm3) than in healthy subjects (240000 ± 51000/mm3, P < 0.001). Significant difference was determined for platelet counts among child A, B and C stages (Child A vs. Child B P < 0.05 Child A vs. Child C P < 0.001–Child B vs. Child C P < 0.05). Serum TPO concentration was higher (69 ± 12 pg/mL) in cirrhotic group than healthy controls (49 ± 9 pg/ml) (P < 0.05). No significant difference in TPO levels were found among the Child A, B and C stages (64 ± 11 pg/mL, 75 ± 13 pg/mL and 68 ± 10 pg/mL, respectively). Spleen size and SVI was significantly higher in the cirrhotic patients than healthy controls (148 ± 14 mm vs. 98 ± 11 mm, P < 0.001-9167 ± 287 cm2 vs. 4118 ± 123 cm2). Significant difference was determined for spleen size and spleen index among child A, B and C stages (Child A vs. Child B P < 0.05 Child A vs. Child C P < 0.001–Child B vs. Child C P < 0.05). TPO levels were significantly different between cirrhotic patients with platelet levels below 50.000/mm3 (n = 16, plt-count: 41000 ± 8300/mm3, TPO levels: 73 ± 7 pg/mL) and above 50.000/mm3 (n = 76, plt-count: 105000 ± 9500/mm3, TPO levels: 65 ± 10 pg/mL) (P < 0.01). In correlation analysis, there was a strong negative correlation between platelet count-spleen size (P < 0.001, r = -0.74) and platelet count–serum TPO levels (P < 0.001, r = -0.71).

Patients and Methods

Ninety–two cirrhotic patients and 45 healthy controls without history or findings of pathologies that can effect thrombopoietin levels were enrolled by simple random sampling to patient and control groups of this case control study performed at Eskisehir-Turkey. Thrombopoietin was measured in serum samples with a solid phase enzyme-linked immune absorbent assay. Additionally, spleen size and volume index were determined.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate serum thrombopoietin levels and its relationship with thrombocytopenia at patients with cirrhosis.

Background

Patients with cirrhosis usually have thrombocytopenia in discrete levels. The mechanism of thrombocytopenia is thought as splenic sequestration and destruction of platelets, impaired bone marrow generation and diminished hepatic thrombopoietin synthesis.

Liver Cirrhosis;Thrombocytopenia;Thrombopoietin Liver Cirrhosis;Thrombocytopenia;Thrombopoietin http://www.hepatmon.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=18556 Tuncer Temel Tuncer Temel Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey; Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey. Tel: +90-2222392979, Fax: +90-2222393772 Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey; Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey. Tel: +90-2222392979, Fax: +90-2222393772 Dondu Uskudar Cansu Dondu Uskudar Cansu Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumotology, Faculty of Medicine, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumotology, Faculty of Medicine, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey Halide Edip Temel Halide Edip Temel Biochemistry Department, Pharmacy Faculty, Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey Biochemistry Department, Pharmacy Faculty, Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey Aysegul Harmanc Ozakyol Aysegul Harmanc Ozakyol Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey
en 24976835 10.5812/hepatmon.19433 Interferon-λ Genetic Variations and Hepatitis C: Yet to be Discovered Interferon-λ Genetic Variations and Hepatitis C: Yet to be Discovered letter letter Hepatitis C;Genetic polymorphism Hepatitis C;Genetic polymorphism http://www.hepatmon.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=19433 Maryam Keshvari Maryam Keshvari Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, Tehran, IR Iran; Middle East Liver Diseases (MELD) Center, Tehran, IR Iran Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, Tehran, IR Iran; Middle East Liver Diseases (MELD) Center, Tehran, IR Iran Heidar Sharafi Heidar Sharafi Middle East Liver Diseases (MELD) Center, Tehran, IR Iran; Middle East Liver Diseases (MELD) Center, No. 178, Cross Shadab, Sepahbod Gharani Street, P. O. Box: 14155/3651, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188945186, Fax: +98-2188945188 Middle East Liver Diseases (MELD) Center, Tehran, IR Iran; Middle East Liver Diseases (MELD) Center, No. 178, Cross Shadab, Sepahbod Gharani Street, P. O. Box: 14155/3651, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188945186, Fax: +98-2188945188
en 24976833 10.5812/hepatmon.16391 Molecular Epidemiology of Different Hepatitis C Genotypes in Serum and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Jahrom City of Iran Molecular Epidemiology of Different Hepatitis C Genotypes in Serum and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Jahrom City of Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

It is suggested that determination of the target genotype by plasma subtyping for choosing the proper antiviral therapy is essential but may result in therapy failure. HCV genotyping in PBMC samples, along with plasma specimens, might be more beneficial. Therefore determining the HCV genotype in PBMCs, before beginning the therapy is useful due to the possibility of occult infection detection.

Results

Subtype 3 was the most common genotype in plasma (57.7%) and PBMCs (51.1%). Subtype 1a was detected in 36.5% and 30.7% of plasma samples and PBMCs, respectively whereas subtype 4 was not detected in any of the cases. There was a genotype difference between plasma and PBMCs of 12.4% of patients. In four patients no genotype was detected in their plasma but genotype 3 was detected in the PBMCs.

Patients and Methods

Blood samples of 137 patients with established HCV were collected at the Honari clinic. These patients were anti-HCV and plasma HCV RNA positive. After plasma RNA extraction and obtaining a pellet of approximately 3-5 × 106 PBMCs, Real-time PCR was performed, using specific-genotype primers. Finally, data analysis was done by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software.

Background

The Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is considered essentially hepatotropic, yet the virus compartments have also been found in important extra hepatic sites. Detection of HCV RNA in extra hepatic reservoirs such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is important for determining disease progression and treatment effectiveness.

Objectives

The present study aimed to determine different HCV genotypes in patients' plasma and PBMC specimens, in Jahrom city of Iran.

Conclusions

It is suggested that determination of the target genotype by plasma subtyping for choosing the proper antiviral therapy is essential but may result in therapy failure. HCV genotyping in PBMC samples, along with plasma specimens, might be more beneficial. Therefore determining the HCV genotype in PBMCs, before beginning the therapy is useful due to the possibility of occult infection detection.

Results

Subtype 3 was the most common genotype in plasma (57.7%) and PBMCs (51.1%). Subtype 1a was detected in 36.5% and 30.7% of plasma samples and PBMCs, respectively whereas subtype 4 was not detected in any of the cases. There was a genotype difference between plasma and PBMCs of 12.4% of patients. In four patients no genotype was detected in their plasma but genotype 3 was detected in the PBMCs.

Patients and Methods

Blood samples of 137 patients with established HCV were collected at the Honari clinic. These patients were anti-HCV and plasma HCV RNA positive. After plasma RNA extraction and obtaining a pellet of approximately 3-5 × 106 PBMCs, Real-time PCR was performed, using specific-genotype primers. Finally, data analysis was done by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software.

Background

The Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is considered essentially hepatotropic, yet the virus compartments have also been found in important extra hepatic sites. Detection of HCV RNA in extra hepatic reservoirs such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is important for determining disease progression and treatment effectiveness.

Objectives

The present study aimed to determine different HCV genotypes in patients' plasma and PBMC specimens, in Jahrom city of Iran.

Hepatitis C Virus;Genotype;Polymerase Chain Reaction Hepatitis C Virus;Genotype;Polymerase Chain Reaction http://www.hepatmon.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=16391 Asghar Ashrafi Hafez Asghar Ashrafi Hafez Proteomics Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Proteomics Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Rasoul Baharlou Rasoul Baharlou Department of Microbiology, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, IR Iran Department of Microbiology, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, IR Iran Seyed Dawood Mousavi Nasab Seyed Dawood Mousavi Nasab Department of Virology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Virology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Abbas Ahmadi Vasmehjani Abbas Ahmadi Vasmehjani Department of Microbiology, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, IR Iran; Department of Microbiology, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7913336086, Fax: +98-791341509 Department of Microbiology, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, IR Iran; Department of Microbiology, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7913336086, Fax: +98-791341509 Mohammad Shayestehpour Mohammad Shayestehpour Department of Virology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Virology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Negar Joharinia Negar Joharinia Department of Microbiology, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, IR Iran Department of Microbiology, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, IR Iran Nayeb Ali Ahmadi Nayeb Ali Ahmadi Department of Medical Lab Technology and Proteomics Research Center, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Medical Lab Technology and Proteomics Research Center, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/hepatmon.20685 Erratum to: Prognostic Values of Fluctuations in Serum Levels of Alanine Transaminase in Inactive Carrier State of HBV Infection [Published in Hepatitis Monthly. 2014 May; 14(5): e17537] Erratum to: Prognostic Values of Fluctuations in Serum Levels of Alanine Transaminase in Inactive Carrier State of HBV Infection [Published in Hepatitis Monthly. 2014 May; 14(5): e17537] correction correction http://www.hepatmon.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=20685 SM Alavian SM Alavian Middle East Liver Diseases Center (MELD), Tehran, IR Iran ; Middle East Liver Diseases Center (MELD), Tehran, IR Iran Middle East Liver Diseases Center (MELD), Tehran, IR Iran ; Middle East Liver Diseases Center (MELD), Tehran, IR Iran